Monitors & Screens

What are considered monitors and screens, what exactly are they used for? Below, we explain the different technology behind all the different types of complex monitors and screens, and their advancements over the years.

Monitors and Screens’ application on Events

  • 2D / 3D animations
  • Projection Mapping
  • Responsive Display Structures
  • Sensor Interaction
  • Networking

The perks and uses of this technology are highlighted in their respective category. However, in this category, we will be explaining the basic hardware and specifications you need to take note of to support all these applications.

Projection Technology

Light Intensity

Intensity is measured in lux, lumens and foot-candles. The intensity of a luminaire (lighting instrument or fixture) depends on a number of factors including its lamp power, the design of the instrument (and its efficiency), optical obstructions such as colour gels or mechanical filters, the distance to the area to be lit and the beam or field angle of the fixture, the colour and material to be lit, and the relative contrasts to other regions of illumination.

Colour temperature is measured in kelvins. A light’s apparent colour is determined by its lamp colour, the colour of any gels in the optical path, its power level, and the colour of the material it lights.

Throw Ratio for Monitors

The throw ratio tells us exactly what the size of the image is when projected over a certain distance. It can be calculated by: (Distance ÷ Width = Throw). Throw can be categorized into 3 distinct categories, but projectors may not be subjected to just one category.

Long Throw

Projectors are typically installed in the centre of the ceiling in a large room, to provide large images.

Short Throw

Projectors are generally installed on the wall or ceiling closer to the projection surface. Short throw projection is categorized with the distance of between 3 to 8 feet from projector to screen. It creates large images as well, while reducing shadow and eye glare.

Ultra-Short Throw

Projectors that are installed even closer to the projection screen. It is categorized by the distance between projector and screen of between 0 to 4 feet. More often than not, this type fully eliminates shadow and eye glare.

Monitor and screen Connections (VGA / HDMI)

Video Graphics Array (VGA) connection is the most common type of connection on both desktop and laptop computers. Most projectors and television sets are incorporated with VGA port which allows a VGA cable to be connected to them.

High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) connection is another widely used type. Majority of the latest television sets come with HDMI inputs as well, although HDMI is more widely used in conjunction with laptops and computers. As the name suggests, High Definition Multimedia Interface generally creates higher quality compared to VGA.

Widely available in the market would also be splitters that would allow connection of VGA and HDMI.

Touch Screens

Traditional touch screens are analogue resistive. The panels installed detect how much resistance is being applied, and hence how much current is flowed through. This process is done by creating two separate layers. The bottom layer is made of glass and the top layer is a plastic film. Upon a user pushing down on a touchscreen, the contact with the glass closes the circuit. This analogue voltage is processed by analogue-to-digital converters (ADC) to create a digital signal that the device’s controller can use as an input signal from the user.

Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) is a type of technology that stores a small amount of memory on a computer motherboard. Optical touch technology uses CMOS infrared cameras which are designed on the top of the panel to monitor field of view. Optical touch screens use infrared light, and upon someone touching the screen, the light is blocked and the pre-coded system reacts accordingly. Optical touch screens are examples of application that requires both passive and active screens. Passive screen uses light generated by cameras and reflects them back by the side and bottom edges. Meanwhile, active screens use light that is emitted directly from LEDs along the side and bottom edges.

Monitor an screen’s PC / Integration

Monitor

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

LCD is a technology that allows light to pass through a liquid crystal material. They do not emit light directly, but instead use a backlight or a reflector to produce images in colour or monochrome.

Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)

CRT is the pioneer technology for creation of monitors. It makes use an electron gun which is embedded with deflecting coils. A complex electromagnetic field controls the intensity of the electron beam, and combined with complex signals being applied to the deflecting coils, creates an image that is projected onto the projection screen (TV).

Pixel Density

Pixels per inch (PPI) or pixels per centimetre (PPCM) are measurements of the pixel density (resolution) of an electronic image device. Higher pixel density would mean a clearer projection.

360p

Videos are 360p are typically suited for smartphones and other mobile devices as they require less data. However, it could appear blurry if portrayed on a large screen.

480p

Most DVD is of 480p. A disc will generally only allow 480p maximum, but will still play well on most laptop or desktop monitors. However, there are new advancements in disc technology providing Blue-ray disc or Blue-ray burner which allows for HD quality content.

720p

High-definition quality starts of at 720p. Most television broadcast channels display their content at 720p. High definition looks crisp and sharp on most displays.

1080p

1080p is also available and is used by some HD television stations. It is similar to 720p, but even clearer and sharper.

Media Server

A media server refers to either a dedicated computer appliance or specialized application software. These facilitate storage of digital media content. Examples includeNetwork Attached Storage (NAS) for personal computers.